”Gör plats!”

Om ableism, paternalism och konstruktionen av normbrytande funktionalitet


  • Elisabet Apelmo Fil dr i sociologi och lektor i handikapp- och rehabiliteringsvetenskap vid Malmö universitet
  • Åsa Alftberg Docent i socialt arbete vid Malmö universitet




”Make room!” Concerning ableism, paternalism and the construction of dis/ability

Within the social work profession, social vulnerability and social justice are central concerns. However, professional emphasis is on economic and social conditions and less on dis/ability, despite the fact that dis/ability is important, not only for services aimed specifically at people with dis/abilities, but the entire profession of social work is linked to dis/ability in various ways. The purpose of the article is to contribute to a deepened understanding of vulnerability in general and, in particular, the vulnerability of people with dis/abilities. An advertisement from the Swedish Public Employment Service’s campaign “Make room!” forms a point of departure for a theoretical discussion of how dis/ability is constructed. 

The article demonstrates how the advertisement is based on paternalistic and ableistic ways of thinking that connect dis/ability, gender, and race/ethnicity. Able-bodied perfection is regarded as desirable, while the deviant body is linked to deficiency and suffering. The article also deals with the critical discussion that followed the advertisement, which eventually led to the Swedish Public Employment Service withdrawing it. 

Finally, we argue in favour of a cripistemological perspective in social work. This means taking previously marginalized knowledge as a starting point and reformulate traditional perspectives. It also means seeking cross-border cooperation between social work and the disability rights movement as well as other social movements. Thus, the lived experience of vulnerability that can result from impairment and its effects, as well as the political vulnerability that arises due to lack of resources, are made visible, without vulnerability being interpreted from paternalistic and ableistic perspectives. Moreover, ideas of the normal body and the normal way of thinking and feeling can be 


Nedladdningsdata är inte tillgängliga än.


Ahmed, S. (2011). Vithetens hegemoni. Tankekraft.

Alexander, J. (2015). ”Superhumanity” and the embodiment of enlightenment. I: D. Jackson, C.E.M. Hodges, M. Molesworth & R. Scullion (red.),

Reframing disability? Media, (dis)empowerment and voice in the 2012 Paralympics. Routledge.

Alftberg, Å. (2021). Ålderism och ableism som strategier för social ordning. I: H. Jönson (red.), Perspektiv på ålderism. Social Work Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37852/oblu.117.145

Alftberg, Å., Johansson, M. & Ahlström, G. (2019). Ambivalence among staff regarding ageing with intellectual disabilities: experiences and reflections. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 25(2), 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629519874997

Apelmo, E. (2012). Crip heroes and social change. Lambda Nordica, 17(1–2), 27–52.

Apelmo, E. (2013). Som vem som helst: kön, funktionalitet och idrottande kroppar. Daidalos.

Apelmo, E. (2016a). Rumsliga möjligheter och begränsningar: teoretiska och empiriska perspektiv på ljudmiljöer. I: Å. Alftberg, E. Apelmo & K. Hansson (red.), Ljud tar plats: funktionshinderperspektiv på ljudmiljöer. Lund Studies of Arts and Cultural Sciences 11, Lund university.

Apelmo, E. (2016b). Sport and the female disabled body. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315610412

Apelmo, E. & Nordgren, C. (2022). Still waiting for the hand to be raised: on being crip killjoys at an ableist university. I: H. Egard, K. Hansson & D. Wästerfors (red.), Accessibility denied: understanding inaccessibility and everyday resistance to inclusion for persons with disabilities. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003120452-7

Arbetsförmedlingen (2019). Gör plats-kampanjen tar bort en bild. [https://arbetsformedlingen.se/om-oss/press/nyheter/nyhetsarkiv/2019-10-04-gor-plats-kampanjen-tar-bort-en-bild Hämtat: 2021-06-23].

Arbetsförmedlingen (2020). Det här gjorde Arbetsförmedlingen för sina 67 miljarder kronor. [https://arbetsformedlingen.se/om-oss/press/nyheter/nyhetsarkiv/2020-02-25-det-har-gjorde-arbetsformedlingen-for-sina-67-miljarder-kronor Hämtat: 2021-06-23].

Bahnér, B. (2016). Så nära får ingen gå? En studie om sexualitet, funktionshinder och personlig assistans. Göteborgs universitet.

Barron, K. (1996). The transition from adolescence to adulthood for physically disabled young people. Uppsala universitet.

Bigby, C. (2013). A national disability insurance scheme: challenges for social work. Australian Social Work, 66(1), 1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2013.771602

Björngren Cuadra, C., Lalander, P. & Righard, E. (2013). Socialt arbete i Malmö: perspektiv och utmaningar. Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, 20(1), 4–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3384/SVT.2013.20.1.2442

Bransford, C.L. (2011). Reconciling paternalism and empowerment in clinical practice: an intersubjective perspective. Social Work, 56(1), 33–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/56.1.33

Brown, K. (2011). ”Vulnerability”: handle with care. Ethics and Social Welfare, 5(3), 313–321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17496535.2011.597165

Burghardt, M., Edelist, T., Schormans, A.F. & Yoshida, K. (2021). Coming to critical disability studies: critical reflections on disability in health and social work professions. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 10(1), 22–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15353/cjds.v10i1.743

Butler, J. (2009). Krigets ramar: när är livet sörjbart? Tankekraft.

Campbell, F.K. (2008). Refusing able(ness): a preliminary conversation about ableism. M/C journal, 11(3). [https://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/view/46 Hämtat: 2022-08-09]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5204/mcj.46

Campbell, F.K. (2009). Contours of ableism: the production of disability and abledness. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230245181

Campbell, F.K. (2012). Stalking ableism: using disability to expose ”abled” narcissism. I: D. Goodley, B. Hughes & L. Davis (red.), Disability and social theory: new developments and directions. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137023001_13

Crenshaw, K.W. (1991). Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039

de los Reyes, P. & Mulinari, D. (2005). Intersektionalitet. Liber.

Drenten, J., Gurrieri, L. & Tyler, M. (2020). Sexualized labour in digital culture: Instagram influencers, porn chic and the monetization of attention. Gender Work Organ, 27(1), 41–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12354

Duffy, B.E. & Hund, E. (2015). ”Having it all” on social media: entrepreneurial femininity and self-branding among fashion bloggers. Social Media + Society, 1(2), 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115604337

Dyer, R. (2008). White: essays on race and culture. Routledge.

Eriksson, N. (2019a). Mitt ursprung? [video], 9 december. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQVm-_4_kVo Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Eriksson, N. (2019b). Här kommer ett tydligare inlägg om situationen med Arbetsförmedlingen [Facebook], 30 september. [https://www.facebook.com/natalie.ahlgren/posts/2473256882752713 Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Eriksson, N. (u.å.). This is how I roll [blogg]. [https://nouw.com/thisishowiroll Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Essed, P. (2005). Vardagsrasism. I: P. de los Reyes & M. Kamali (red.), Bortom Vi och Dom: teoretiska reflektioner om makt, integration och strukturell diskriminering. Rapport av Utredningen om makt, integration och strukturell diskriminering. SOU 2005:41.

Funk i P1. (2016). ”Det är hippt att vara crip” [radioprogram]. Sveriges Radio, P1, 5 juli. [https://sverigesradio.se/avsnitt/743525 Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Funktionsrätt Sverige. (2017). Begreppet funktionsrätt. [https://funktionsratt.se/om-funktionsratt-sverige/begreppet-funktionsratt/ Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Garland-Thomson, R. (1997). Extraordinary bodies: figuring physical disability in American culture and literature. Columbia University Press.

Ghersetti, M. (2007). Bilden av funktionshinder: en studie av nyheter i Sveriges Television. Göteborgs universitet.

Gruber, S., Dahlstedt, M., Herz, M. & Lalander, P. (2020). Förord: kritiska sociala arbeten. Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, 27(3/4), 199–206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3384/SVT.2020.27.3-4.3661

Grue, J. (2019). Jag lever ett liv som liknar ditt: en berättelse om att leva med en sårbar kropp. Weyler.

Gunnarsson, T. (2016). Bilder som förändrar världen. Gävle kommun.

Hochschild, A.R. (2003). The commercialization of intimate life: notes from home and work. University of California Press.

Hughes, B. & Paterson, K. (1997). The social model of disability and the disappearing body: towards a sociology of impairment. Disability & Society, 12(3), 325–340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599727209

Jallow, L. (2019). Therese Lindgren II: ableism and whitewashing [video], 2 oktober. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ph8DmBLBQBY&t=19s Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Johansson Wilén, E., Palmqvist, L. & Sundhall, J. (2019). Snåriga sårbarheter i nyliberala tider: om relationen mellan sårbarhet, agens och nyliberalism. Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, 40(1), 49–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.55870/tgv.v40i1.2722

Johnson, M.L & McRuer, R. (2014). Cripistemologies: introduction. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 8(2), 127–147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3828/jlcds.2014.12

Jönson, H. & Taghizadeh Larsson, A. (2019). Ableism and ageism. I: D. Gu & M. E. Dupre (red.), Encyclopedia of gerontology and population aging. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_581-1

Karlsson, K. (2007). Funktionshinder, samtal och självbestämmande: en studie av brukarcentrerade möten. Linköpings universitet.

Kulick, D. & Rydström, J. (2015). Loneliness and its opposite: sex, disability, and the ethics of engagement. Duke University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780822375845

Kåhlin, I., Kjellberg, A. & Hagberg J.E. (2016). Ageing in people with intellectual disability as it is understood by group home staff. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 41(1), 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2015.1094038

Levy Simon, B. (1994). The empowerment tradition in American social work: a history. Columbia University Press.

Ljuslinder, K. (2002). På nära håll är ingen normal: handikappdiskurser i Sveriges television 1956–2000. Umeå universitet.

Löfgren-Mårtenson, L. (2012). Hip to be crip? Om cripteori, sexualitet och personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning. Lambda Nordica, 17(1–2), 53–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34041/ln.v17.647

Lövgren, V. (2013). Villkorat vuxenskap: levd erfarenhet av intellektuellt funktionshinder, kön och ålder. Umeå universitet.

Malmberg, D. (2012). ”To be cocky is to challenge norms”: the impact of bodynormativity on bodily and sexual attraction in relation to being a cripple. Lambda Nordica, 17(1–2), 194–216.

Mattsson, T. (2012). Makt, intersektionalitet och det sociala arbetets praktik. I: M. Herz (red.), Kritiskt socialt arbete. Liber.

Mattsson, T. (2021). Intersektionalitet i socialt arbete: teori, reflektion och praxis. Gleerups.

McRuer, R. (2006). Crip theory: cultural signs of queerness and disability. New York University Press.

McRuer, R. & Johnson, M.L. (2014). Proliferating cripistemologies: a virtual roundtable. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 8(2), 149–159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3828/jlcds.2014.13

Meekosha H. & Dowse L. (2007). Integrating critical disability studies into social work education and practice: an Australian perspective. Practice, 19(3), 169–183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09503150701574267

Merriam-Webster (2019). A new meaning of ”whitewashing”: old word, new meaning. [Hämtat: 2020-06-23].

Mossberg, L. (2016). Service user involvement in Swedish mental health and social care: an analysis of ideological dilemmas and subject positions in a collaboration context. European Journal of Social Work, 19(5), 716–730. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691457.2015.1081586

Moyle, J. (2016). Including disability in the social work core curriculum: a compelling argument. Australian Social Work, 69(4), 503–511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2016.1216575

Mulinari, P., Tahvilzadeh, N. & Kings, L. (2020). Dekolonialt socialt arbete: om relationen mellan gräsrotsrörelser och kritiskt socialt arbete i den urbana periferin. Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, 27(3–4), 249–267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3384/SVT.2020.27.3-4.3664

Nikku, N. (1997). Informative paternalism: studies in the ethics of promoting and predicting health. Linköpings universitet.

Norstedt, M. (2011). Berättelser om stroke och arbetsliv: att upptäcka styranderelationer. Lunds universitet.

Oliver, M. (1996). Understanding disability: from theory to practice. Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-24269-6

Palmqvist, L. (2020). Ålderdom, omsorg och makt: gamlas situation och omsorgsrelationer i nyliberala tider. Göteborgs universitet.

Parametern Podd (2017). Avsnitt 1: Mode och självkänsla [podcast]. [http://stockholm.ungarorelsehindrade.se/podcast/avsnitt-1-mode-och-sjalvkansla/ Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Pugsi, J. (2015). ”Vi vill ta tillbaka ordet crip”: bloggen Crip Reactions bygger på fördomar om funktionsvariationer. Nöjesguiden. [https://ng.se/artiklar/vi-vill-ta-tillbaka-ordet-crip-bloggen-crip-reactions-bygger-pa-fordomar-om Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Reamer, F. (1983). The concept of paternalism in social work. Social Service Review, 57(2), 254–271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/644516

Roulstone, A. (2012). ”Stuck in the middle with you”: towards enabling social work with disabled people. Social Work Education, 31(2), 142–154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2012.644942

Rågsjö Thorell, A. (2019). Efter kritiken mot ”Gör plats”: influencern får skadestånd av Arbetsförmedlingen. Resumé. [https://www.resume.se/marknadsforing/kampanj/efter-kritiken-mot-gor-plats-influencern-far-skadestand-av-arbetsformedlingen/ Hämtat: 2022-08-09].

Sandahl, C. (2003). Queering the crip or cripping the queer? Intersections of queer and crip identities in solo autobiographical performance. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 9(1–2), 25–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-9-1-2-25

SCB (2020). Situationen på arbetsmarknaden för personer med funktionsnedsättning 2019: information om utbildning och arbetsmarknad (IAM) 2020: 2. Statistiska centralbyrån.

SCB (2022). Situationen på arbetsmarknaden för personer med funktionsnedsättning 2021: information om utbildning och arbetsmarknad (IAM) 2022: 2. Statistiska centralbyrån.

Scully, J.L. (2013). Disability and vulnerability: on bodies, dependence and power. I: C. Mackenzie, W. Rogers & S. Dodds (red.), Vulnerability: new essays in ethics and feminist philosophy. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199316649.003.0009

Shakespeare, T. (2014). Disability rights and wrongs revisited. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315887456

Shildrick, M. & Price, J. (1996). Breaking the boundaries of the broken body. Body & Society, 2(4), 93–113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X96002004006

Shuttleworth, R. (2012). Bridging theory and experience: a critical-interpretive ethnography of sexuality and disability. I: R. McRuer & A. Mollow (red.), Sex and disability. Duke University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822394877-003

Stafford, L. (2020). Disrupting ableism in social work pedagogy with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and critical disability theory. I: C. Morley, P. Ablett, C. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351002042-30

Noble & S. Cowden (red.), The Routledge handbook of critical pedagogies for social work. Routledge.

Starrin, B. (1997). Empowerment som tankemodell. I: E. Forsberg & B. Starrin (red.), Frigörande kraft: empowerment som modell i skola, omsorg och arbetsliv. Förlagshuset Gothia.

Starrin, B. (2000). Empowerment och funktionshinder. I: P. Brusén & L.C. Hydén (red.), Ett liv som andra: livsvillkor för personer med funktionshinder. Studentlitteratur.

Sverrisson, A. (2015). Visuell metodik. I: G. Ahrne & P. Svensson (red.), Handbok i kvalitativa metoder. Liber.

Tengland, P.-A. (2014). Problem med att mäta arbetsförmåga: en genomgång av några befintliga instrument. I: K. Ekberg (red.), Den relativa arbetsförmågan: teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv. Studentlitteratur.

Thomas, C. (1999). Female forms: experiencing and understanding disability. Open University Press.

Thomas, C. (2007). Sociologies of disability and illness: contested ideas in disability studies and medical sociology. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-02019-2

Turner, B.S. (2001). Disability and the sociology of the body. I: K.D. Seelman, M. Bury, & G.L. Albrecht (red.), Handbook of disability studies. Sage Publications.

West, C. & Zimmerman, D.H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002




Referera så här

Apelmo, E. och Alftberg, Åsa (2023) ”’Gör plats!’ : Om ableism, paternalism och konstruktionen av normbrytande funktionalitet”, Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, 29(2), s. 131–150. doi: 10.3384/SVT.2022.29.2.4609.